1. Creatinine Based Equations
  2. Reviews and Editorials for Creatinine based Equations
  3. Cystatin C Based Equations
  4. Reviews and Editorials for Cystatin C based Equations
  5. Transplant
  6. Creatinine Excretion
  7. Drug Dosing
  8. Implementation

 

Creatinine Based Equations

1. Levey AS, Coresh J, Greene T, Stevens LA, Zhang YL, Hendriksen S, Kusek JW, Van Lente F; Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Using standardized serum creatinine values in the modification of diet in renal disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Aug 15;145(4):247-54. Erratum in: Ann Intern Med. 2008 Oct 7;149(7):519. PubMed PMID: 16908915.

2. Levey AS, Coresh J, Greene T, Marsh J, Stevens LA, Kusek JW, Van Lente F; Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Expressing the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate with standardized serum creatinine values. Clin Chem. 2007 Apr;53(4):766-72. PubMed PMID: 17332152.

3. Stevens LA, Coresh J, Feldman HI, Greene T, Lash JP, Nelson RG, Rahman M, Deysher AE, Zhang YL, Schmid CH, Levey AS. Evaluation of the modification of diet in renal disease study equation in a large diverse population. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007 Oct;18(10):2749-57. PubMed PMID: 17855641.

4. Li L, Greene T. Varying coefficients model with measurement error. Biometrics. 2008 Jun;64(2):519-26. PubMed PMID: 17970822.

5. Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Castro AF 3rd, Feldman HI, Kusek JW, Eggers P, Van Lente F, Greene T, Coresh J; CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration). A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med. 2009 May 5;150(9):604-12. Erratum in: Ann Intern Med. 2011 Sep 20;155(6):408. PubMed PMID: 19414839; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2763564.

6. Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Coresh J, Manzi J, Landis R, Bakoush O, Contreras G, Genuth S, Klintmalm GB, Poggio E, Rossing P, Rule AD, Weir MR, Kusek J, Greene T, Levey AS. Development and validation of GFR-estimating equations using diabetes, transplant and weight. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010 Feb;25(2):449-57. PubMed PMID: 19793928; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2910328.

7. Kwong YT, Stevens LA, Selvin E, Zhang YL, Greene T, Van Lente F, Levey AS, Coresh J. Imprecision of urinary iothalamate clearance as a gold-standard measure of GFR decreases the diagnostic accuracy of kidney function estimating equations. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 Jul;56(1):39-49. PubMed PMID: 20537455.

8. Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Greene T, Zhang YL, Beck GJ, Froissart M, Hamm LL, Lewis JB, Mauer M, Navis GJ, Steffes MW, Eggers PW, Coresh J, Levey AS. Comparative performance of the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equations for estimating GFR levels above 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 Sep;56(3):486-95. PubMed PMID: 20557989; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2926290.

9. Stevens LA, Claybon MA, Schmid CH, Chen J, Horio M, Imai E, Nelson RG, Van Deventer M, Wang HY, Zuo L, Zhang YL, Levey AS. Evaluation of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation for estimating the glomerular filtration rate in multiple ethnicities. Kidney Int. 2011 Mar;79(5):555-62. PubMed PMID: 21107446.

10. Padala S, Tighiouart H, Inker LA, Contreras G, Beck GJ, Lewis J, Steffes M, Rodby RA, Schmid CH, Levey AS. Accuracy of a GFR estimating equation over time in people with a wide range of kidney function. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012 Aug;60(2):217-24. PubMed PMID: 22495467; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3399947.

11. Inker LA, Schmid CH, Tighiouart H, Eckfeldt JH, Feldman HI, Greene T, Kusek JW, Manzi J, Van Lente F, Zhang YL, Coresh J, Levey AS; CKD-EPI Investigators. Estimating glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine and cystatin C. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 5;367(1):20-9. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2012 Aug 16;367(7):681. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 22;367(21):2060. PubMed PMID: 22762315.

12. Fan L, Levey AS, Gudnason V, Eiriksdottir G, Andresdottir MB, Gudmundsdottir H, Indridason OS, Palsson R, Mitchell G, Inker LA. Comparing GFR Estimating Equations Using Cystatin C and Creatinine in Elderly Individuals. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Dec 19. pii: ASN.2014060607. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25527647.

Reviews and Editorials for Creatinine based Equations

1. Stevens LA, Levey AS. Clinical implications of estimating equations for glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Dec 21;141(12):959-61. PubMed PMID: 15611494.

2. Stevens LA, Levey AS. Measurement of kidney function. Med Clin North Am. 2005 May;89(3):457-73. Review. PubMed PMID: 15755462.

3. Coresh J, Stevens LA. Kidney function estimating equations: where do we stand? Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2006 May;15(3):276-84. Review. PubMed PMID: 16609295.

4. Stevens LA, Coresh J, Greene T, Levey AS. Assessing kidney function—measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jun 8;354(23):2473-83. PubMed PMID: 16760447.

5. Levey AS, Stevens LA, Hostetter T. Automatic reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate–just what the doctor ordered. Clin Chem. 2006 Dec;52(12):2188-93. PubMed PMID: 17068166.

6. Stevens LA, Zhang Y, Schmid CH. Evaluating the performance of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate. J Nephrol. 2008 Nov-Dec;21(6):797-807. Review. PubMed PMID: 19034863.

7. Coresh J, Auguste P. Reliability of GFR formulas based on serum creatinine, with special reference to the MDRD Study equation. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 2008;241:30-8. PubMed PMID: 18569962.

8. Stevens LA, Levey AS. Impact of reporting estimated glomerular filtration rate: it’s not just about us. Kidney Int. 2009 Aug;76(3):245-7. PubMed PMID: 19904255.

9. Stevens LA, Levey AS. Measured GFR as a confirmatory test for estimated GFR. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 Nov;20(11):2305-13. Review. PubMed PMID: 19833901.

10. Levey AS, Stevens LA. Estimating GFR using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine equation: more accurate GFR estimates, lower CKD prevalence estimates, and better risk predictions. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 Apr;55(4):622-7. PubMed PMID: 20338463; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2846308.

11. Stevens LA, Padala S, Levey AS. Advances in glomerular filtration rate-estimating equations. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2010 May;19(3):298-307. Review. PubMed PMID: 20393287; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3192437.

12. Levey AS, Coresh J. Chronic kidney disease. Lancet. 2012 Jan 14;379(9811):165-80. Aug Review. PubMed PMID: 21840587.

 

Cystatin C Based Equations

1. Stevens LA, Coresh J, Schmid CH, Feldman HI, Froissart M, Kusek J, Rossert J, Van Lente F, Bruce RD 3rd, Zhang YL, Greene T, Levey AS. Estimating GFR using serum cystatin C alone and in combination with serum creatinine: a pooled analysis of 3,418 individuals with CKD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008 Mar;51(3):395-406. PubMed PMID: 18295055; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2390827.

2. Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Greene T, Li L, Beck GJ, Joffe MM, Froissart M, Kusek JW, Zhang YL, Coresh J, Levey AS. Factors other than glomerular filtration rate affect serum cystatin C levels. Kidney Int. 2009 Mar;75(6):652-60. PubMed PMID: 19119287.

3. Tangri N, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Beck GJ, Greene T, Coresh J, Levey AS. Changes in dietary protein intake has no effect on serum cystatin C levels independent of the glomerular filtration rate. Kidney Int. 2011 Feb;79(4):471-7. PubMed PMID: 20980977.

4. Inker LA, Eckfeldt J, Levey AS, Leiendecker-Foster C, Rynders G, Manzi J, Waheed S, Coresh J. Expressing the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) cystatin C equations for estimating GFR with standardized serum cystatin C values. Am J Kidney Dis. 2011 Oct;58(4):682-4. PubMed PMID: 21855190.

5. Inker LA, Schmid CH, Tighiouart H, Eckfeldt JH, Feldman HI, Greene T, Kusek JW, Manzi J, Van Lente F, Zhang YL, Coresh J, Levey AS; CKD-EPI Investigators. Estimating glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine and cystatin C. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 5;367(1):20-9. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2012 Aug 16;367(7):681. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 22;367(21):2060. PubMed PMID: 22762315.

 

Reviews and Editorials for Cystatin C based Equations

1. Madero M, Sarnak MJ, Stevens LA. Serum cystatin C as a marker of glomerular filtration rate. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2006 Nov;15(6):610-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 17053476.

2. Inker LA, Okparavero A. Cystatin C as a marker of glomerular filtration rate: prospects and limitations. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2011 Nov;20(6):631-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 21926620.

 

Transplant

1. Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Coresh J, Manzi J, Landis R, Bakoush O, Contreras G, Genuth S, Klintmalm GB, Poggio E, Rossing P, Rule AD, Weir MR, Kusek J, Greene T, Levey AS. Development and validation of GFR-estimating equations using diabetes, transplant and weight. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010 Feb;25(2):449-57. PubMed PMID: 19793928; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2910328.

2. Shaffi K, Uhlig K, Perrone RD, Ruthazer R, Rule A, Lieske JC, Navis G, Poggio ED, Inker LA, Levey AS. Performance of creatinine-based GFR estimating equations in solid-organ transplant recipients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014 Jun;63(6):1007-18. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.01.436. Epub 2014 Apr 2. PubMed PMID: 24703720; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4113340.

 

Creatinine Excretion

1. Ix JH, Wassel CL, Stevens LA, Beck GJ, Froissart M, Navis G, Rodby R, Torres VE, Zhang YL, Greene T, Levey AS. Equations to estimate creatinine excretion rate: the CKD epidemiology collaboration. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Jan; 6(1):184-91. PubMed PMID: 20966119; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3022241.

 

Drug Dosing

1. Stevens LA, Nolin TD, Richardson MM, Feldman HI, Lewis JB, Rodby R, Townsend R, Okparavero A, Zhang YL, Schmid CH, Levey AS; Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Comparison of drug dosing recommendations based on measured GFR and kidney function estimating equations. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Jul;54(1):33-42. PubMed PMID: 19446939; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2756662.

2. Stevens LA, Levey AS. Use of the MDRD study equation to estimate kidney function for drug dosing. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Nov;86(5):465-7. PubMed PMID: 19844220.

 

 

Implementation

1. Stevens LA, Levey AS. Current status and future perspectives for CKD testing. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Mar;53(3 Suppl 3):S17-26. PubMed PMID: 19231757.

2. Hostetter TH, Levey AS, Stevens LA. Clinical impact of reporting estimated glomerular filtration rates. Clin Chem. 2010 Sep;56(9):1381-3. PubMed PMID: 20628143.

3. Levey AS, Becker C, Inker LA. Glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for detection and staging of acute and chronic kidney disease in adults: a systematic review. JAMA. 2015 Feb 24;313(8):837-46. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.0602. PubMed PMID: 25710660.

Last Updated: January 2015